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Product alone can never be a solution or answer to any service requirement, The end result always depends on the surface assessment which then requires a certain degree of surface preparation depending on the service requirement and present exposure condition of the floor/wall. Based on this the surface is prepared and is made ready to recieve the respective floor coating suitable to your needs.


General preparation and application instructions


Surface preparation

Concrete, cement screed contaminants
The surface must be sound, open textured and free of cement laitance, dust, oil and other contaminants. Old and used surfaces should be checked for any chloride or oil contamination. Maximum chloride content < 0.25 % by weight. The pull off strength of the prepared surface should be min. ≥ 1.5 N/mm2. Lowest single value 1.0 N/mm2. The concrete must be dry with maximum moisture content of 4 % by weight (measuring with a CM-moisture meter). There are several different methods of surface preparation i. e. vacuum shot blasting, high pressure water jetting (> 800 bar) or grit blasting. Milled or diamond ground or polished surfaces should be treated by shot blasting and vacuum cleaning. In case of using high pressure water jetting, you must ensure that all fine concrete particles on the surface are removed. The working surface should have a rough preparation depth of 0.5 mm. Beware of alkali aggregate reaction. The manufacturer of the concrete, or the manufacturer of the cement screed should confirm that the concrete / cement screed contains no alkali sensitive materials in accordance with the German DAfStb guidelines, contact us for further information?


Vacuum concrete and hard- aggregate floor screed
These surfaces must be inspected carefully and treated in a special manner. Prior to the application it is important to record the conditions and characteristics of the surface. All defects must be documented and kept as a record for the customer. We propose using the pore sealing primer AB-POX 010 diluted with suitable solvent.


Wet concrete and green concrete
If there is moisture present prior to the start of any application first establish the cause and source of it. In the instance of rising damp / moisture we recommend the use of injection techniques, they will create a damp proof barrier. Once an effective barrier to the water ingress is established we can recommend a system to you. Please contact us for specific support. As primer AB-POX 010 or AB-ZEROPOX 810 can be used. New concrete should have a mix design with a water-cement ratio of ≤ 0.5. After approx. 5 days the surface can be prepared by shot blasting. We recommend that you apply two coats of primer using AB-POX 010 (see Technical Data Sheet).


Old, oil-contaminated concrete and cement screed

Oil-contaminated surfaces must first be repeatedly prepared with an emulsifying detergent (oil removing system) and cleaned by high pressure water jetting. Prime the cleaned and prepared substrate with AB-POX 004 (contact us for further information). We recommend to consult a specialised applicator / contractor for such projects.


Bituminous industrial flooring (indoor)

Prior to application onto industrial mastic asphalt or latex, the substrate must be checked and compared with the expected performance characteristics for load and impact. The strength (possible deformation) of the asphalt must meet the stated requirements: a 2 mm coating cannot change a soft asphalt surface into a hard one! The surface must be prepared by shot blasting, grinding and / or milling; minimum 50 % of the filler aggregates must be exposed. Voids and blow holes, soft areas and deformations must be removed and prepared with appropriate repair fillers. We also recommend first applying a test area and examining the result when the test area is cured. As primer and self-levelling coat AB-PUR 375 or AB-ZEROPUR 837 can be used.


Magnesia- and anhydrite / gypsum (plaster) flooring
Generally these surfaces are regarded as difficult or problematic; therefore prior to any coating application they must be carefully inspected and treated / prepared in an appropriate manner. It is usually possible to coat them when they have a cellar located beneath them, or indeed are an upper floor. Any surfaces that do not meet these criteria may only be coated with a sealer. All surfaces should be sound, firm, clean and free of fat, oil or grease. Prepare the surface by shot blasting or abrade using a proprietary grinder. The floor should always be protected prior to and during construction against potential rising damp, this must be a certificated task or assignment. The residual moisture should be 6 - 7 % for mineral, and 8 - 12 % for wooden magnesia surfaces (seal only!). The residual moisture for anhydrite / gypsum must be < 0.5 %. The pull off strength of the magnesia surface must be > 1.5 N/mm², and > 2 N/mm² for anhydrite / gypsum. We recommend first applying a test areas. Please ask for our advise.


Metal (in general)
All contaminants like rust, mill scale, debris, grease, fat, oil, dust, salt, etc. must be removed by using qualified equipment e. g. high-pressure water jetting, grinding or blast-cleaning. The surface preparation is depending on the substrate conditions, object conditions, the specified coating system and the expected performance for load. The surface that is to be coated must be free of all visible and invisible contaminants to ensure a good adhesion. See DIN report 28 „corrosion protection for steel constructions by using coating systems – testing the surface regarding to invisible contaminants before application“. Depending on the requirements special primers or adhesion primers can be used. Please ask for our advise.


Iron, steel (ferrous metals)
Constructions with exposure to extreme mechanical, chemical and thermal strain, e. g. hydraulic engineering, offshore constructions or tanks (internal), require a very thoroughly surface preparation to achieve a good corrosion protection. For additional informations please refer to the international standard DIN EN ISO 12944-2 /-3 and DIN EN 14879-1. The best results will be achieved by blast-cleaning (with tough grit) in accordance to DIN EN ISO 12944-4 or DIN EN ISO 8501-1; preparation grade Sa 2½. Use only approved blasting abrasives with angular grain. Average roughness RY5 (RZ) ≥ 50 μm (DIN EN ISO 12944-4, DIN EN ISO 8503-2) must be guaranteed. In case of doubt (e. g. salt-like air or tanks which have been contaminated / polluted) the surface cleanliness must be measured regarding soluble salt and contaminants in accordance to EN ISO 8502-6 (Bresle method) and EN ISO 8502-9 prior to coating. The maximum allowable concentration of soluble salts on a surface to be coated, measured as sodium chloride, is < 20 mg/m2 (EN ISO 8502-9).


High-grade steel („V2A“, „V4A“)
High-grade steel is regarded as problematic surface, because this substrate requires a thoroughly preparation to achieve a good adhesion. In case of high chemical stress a surface preparation by grinding or blast-cleaning (sweep blast-cleaning with non-ferrous abrasive) may cause blistering. Depending on the requirements special adhesion primers can be used. NOTE - see also metal (in general). Please ask for our advise.


Zinc, aluminium (non-ferrous metals)
Zinc and aluminium are generally regarded as critical surfaces, because they form oxidation products at the substrate which may impair the adhesion. For zinc we recommend a surface preparation by grinding or blast-cleaning (sweep blast-cleaning with non-ferrous abrasive) to remove all contaminants and to achieve a good adhesion. Aluminium is a problematic surface and must be prepared by using a special adhesion primers (AB-MP 099). Depending on the requirements further special adhesion primers are available. NOTE - see also metal (in general). Please ask for our advise.


Wood
Wooden surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of grease, oil and other contaminants. If necessary, prepare the substrate by abrading using a grinder or by shot blasting. AB-POX 002, AB-POX 010, AB-ZEROPOX 802 or AB-ZEROPOX 810 can be used as adhesive primers. We recommend applying a test area and examining the result when the test area is cured.



Climate- and surface conditions

Coating systems never have to be applied in conditions of rising temperatures. Ignoring this rule bubbles will occur which are difficult to remove. Be aware and consider windows, open doors, sun movement, heating installations including radiators, hot water pipes, infra-red heaters, etc. Observation of surface and ambient temperature is very important because changing temperatures influence the performance characteristics of resinous materials. The viscosity and the curing time will be affected and potentially diminish the quality of the finished product. Low temperatures cause slower curing times which impair the surface finish and increase material consumption. High temperatures cause faster curing times which can also influence the finish in the same negative way. Optimum operating temperatures are between 15 - 25ºC. Prior to, during and after the application process the substrate temperature must be at least +3ºC above the current dew point (condensation) temperature. Forced ventilation will create negative effects on water-based products. In case of inadequate ventilation the surface and reaction may be affected by the formation of condensation. Freshly applied coatings must be protected against all moisture including condensation, rain, water etc. until the product has cured, otherwise the surface can change colour, form bubbles or become tacky. These problems can only be remedied by shot blasting and applying a new coating.


Working and safety instructions

Mixing
The ABP - products will be delivered in combination packages that correspond to the correct mixing ratio for the product. Bulk deliveries can be siphoned using a scale. Stir the main component prior to mixing with the hardener. Mix the components in the correct ratio using a suitable low speed electric mixer (300 - 400 rpm) for at least 3 minutes until a completely homogeneous mixture has been achieved. Put the mixed material into a clean container and mix again for at least 1 minute more in order to avoid blending problems. Higher mixing speeds will induce too much air into the product; conversely a very low mixing speed will take too long or fail to achieve a homogeneous mixture. The temperatures of the components must be at least 15ºC. Fillers e. g. quartz sand, should also be at suitable temperatures i. e. not stored outside or delivered on an open truck. After mixing the components, fillers should only be added while constantly stirring. Also stir single component products before use.


Processing and application
Mixed material must be poured out of its container immediately to avoid exothermic heat reaction in the drum, this reaction will reduce the working time of the material considerably. Depending on the system, the products can be roller, trowel, pour or spray applied. For primers a rubber squeegee or rubber rake must be used to spread the product evenly, then a short-haired paint-roller should be used (crosswise manner) to adhere the material to the surface. Avoid ponding! The newly applied primer should always be lightly sprinkled with clean, dry quartz sand Ø 0.4 - 0.8 mm (approx. 0.5 kg/m²) this will stop bubble development on the surface and improve its adhesion to the next coat. A key coat can be applied using a trowel or a notched rake. The key coat can be formulated using AB-ZEROPOX 802 mixed in a ratio 1 : 0.8 with clean, dry quartz sand Ø 0.1 - 0.3 mm. The surface should always be lightly sprinkled with clean, dry quartz sand Ø 0.4 - 0.8 mm (approx. 0.5 kg/m²). Apply sealers generally with a short-haired paint-roller. We recommend using a rubber squeegee to spread the material in an even and uniform manner. Roll-on coatings can be applied in the same way. Self-levelling flooring systems must be applied with a trowel or notched rake. Trowel applications should only be undertaken by suitably experienced personnel as any variation in trowel pressure will vary the finish thickness and surface appearance. Application with a notched rake (rubber or metal) is much easier and leads to constant coat thickness. Watch for signs of wear in the rake during the application process. Normally the notched strip should be replaced after approx. 200 - 300 m². The recently applied coating should be treated with a spiked roller after 5 to 10 minutes to achieve an acceptable surface. Ventilating with a spiked roller achieves a better surface finish. For non-slip flooring systems, a filled self-levelling product is used as coating which needs to be scattered uniformly with aggregates or quartz sand. After curing, remove the excess sand and abrade carefully using a grinder that is equipped with a carborundum disc. Afterwards clean the surface with an industrial vacuum cleaner. Screeds should only be applied by experienced applicators. The different methods of application will be adjusted to suit the work process / logistics, and the specific characteristics of the product. Depending on the product the tools (roller, rake, trowel, etc.) should be replaced and cleaned regularly. Please ask us for detailed information.


Maintenance and service
We recommend that prior to use, the high quality flooring systems should be coated with an acrylic or wax polish. The surfaces will be easier to clean, be more durable and look better. This is necessary for floor systems that receive high volume pedestrian traffic or other forms of mechanical impact. See also the cleaning and maintenance instructions.


Storage
Shelf life and material temperatures are affected by storage conditions. Follow specific instructions and guidelines from Material Safety Data Sheets and other technical information.


Safety
Liquid synthetic products are dangerous goods and can contaminate earth / soil, sewage and drainage systems, and also rivers, lakes / dams and streams etc. Separate, marked components are partially harmful and / or corrosive and / or can irritate. Once correctly mixed or blended most risks are reduced. Once cured, most of our products are inert and harmless and pose no threat to the environment. Always wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye / face protection when handling or applying the flooring products. A first aid bag, eyewash fountains and the address of the nearest doctor / medical service should always be on hand. Ensure adequate ventilation during the application of any materials that include solvents. Should there be any doubt or insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. For additional references to safety-hazard warnings, regulations regarding the transport and waste management please refer to the relevant Material Safety Data Sheets.


Important information
"3-Wheel-Fork-Lift-Trucks"
Floor conveyors, like the fork-lift trucks, are being used in almost all commercial areas. In most cases, the weight of these trucks is distributed on all four wheels while the steering movement is aligned to both wheels of one axle. Three-wheel fork-lift trucks pose a greater challenge. Their weight is distributed on only three wheels and both driving force and steering movement are concentrated on one wheel only. This leads to elevated shearing forces during turns, especially when steering while standing still. Only hard surfaces can take on this strain. As a result, a tough and hard elastic PU-coating, like AB-ZEROPUR 837, is unsuitable. Even highly resistant AB-ZEROPOX-systems show matt, round surface flaws, i. e. damages to the surface, including after sufficient hardening of at least 7 days at 18 to 20ºC. In combination with inevitable dirt and dust, this leads to claimable damages. Please make yourself aware of the used fork-lift trucks before starting any coating procedure in order to be able to point out possible usability difficulties as well as preparing the driveways for their estimated exposure. Please do not hesitate to ask for clarification on a case-by-case basis.

AS- and ESD- coating systems
Using AS- and ESD- coating systems, current standards have to be considered. We explicitly point out that these systems can only ensure compliance with standard norms as long as all necessary parameters are being met (conductive shoes, conductive wheels on the truck, comprehensive grounding). Low relative humidity, particularly with under-floor heatings, may result in increased static tension / loading for isolating and AS- systems (carbon fibers). Sufficient air humidification can remedy such cases. Please contact us for a consultation.


   
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